The Papanicolaou test (abbreviated as Pap test, also known as Pap smear, cervical smear, cervical screening or smear test) is a method of cervical screening used to detect potentially pre-cancerous and cancerous processes in the cervix.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Infertility is the inability of the couple to conceive and have a baby despite trying. In one third of the cases are due to problems with the women, in a third of cases there occurs problems with the male partner, whereas the remaining cases are due to a combination of male and female factors. Infertility should be investigated early to avoid its irreversibility as ageing of the female partner drastically reduces the probabilities of pregnancy. Also certain conditions like tuberculosis or endometriosis keep on advancing if not treated early.
Pelvic pain often refers to pain in the region of women’s internal reproductive organs, and can stem from multiple causes. Pelvic pain can very well be an indication that there may be a problem with one of the reproductive organs in the pelvic area (uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, or vagina).
Figuring out what’s causing your chronic pelvic pain often involves a process of elimination because many different disorders can cause pelvic pain.
For most women, a normal menstrual cycle ranges from 21 to 35 days. However, 14% to 25% of women have irregular menstrual cycles, meaning the cycles are shorter or longer than normal; are heavier or lighter than normal; or are experienced with other problems, like abdominal cramps. Irregular cycles can be ovulatory, meaning that ovulation occurs, or anovulatory, meaning ovulation does not occur.
The most common menstrual irregularities include:
Menopause occurs when a woman hasn’t menstruated in 12 consecutive months and can no longer become pregnant naturally. It usually begins between the ages of 45 and 55, but can develop before or after this age range.
Menopause can cause uncomfortable symptoms, such as Vaginal dryness, Hot flashes , Chills, Night sweats, Sleep problems, Mood changes, Weight gain and slowed metabolism, Thinning hair and dry skin, Loss of breast fullness.
Ovary is the vital organ required for hormones production in the body, for menstrual periods as well as for successful pregnancy. Ovaries can have lesions like a cyst, a tumor, an infection or a cancer, which will hamper one or all of its functions affecting a woman at various ways. The disease requires proper approach and management to remove the pathology and restore its function. Torsion of the ovarian cyst is a gynecological emergency which presents with severe abdominal pain, fever. It requires immediate management to prevent the ovary from dying and to relieve this severe pain, to comfort the patient. Treatment options available are:
Uterine fibroids are noncancerous growths of the uterus that often appear during childbearing years. Also called leiomyomas (lie-o-my-O-muhs) or myomas, uterine fibroids aren’t associated with an increased risk of uterine cancer and almost never develop into cancer.
Fibroids range in size from seedlings, undetectable by the human eye, to bulky masses that can distort and enlarge the uterus. You can have a single fibroid or multiple ones. In extreme cases, multiple fibroids can expand the uterus so much that it reaches the rib cage.
Many women who have fibroids don’t have any symptoms. In those that do, symptoms can be influenced by the location, size and number of fibroids. In women who have symptoms, the most common symptoms of uterine fibroids include:
Uterine prolapse is a form of female genital prolapse. It is also called pelvic organ prolapse or prolapse of the uterus (womb).
Risk factors for uterine prolapse include pregnancy, childbirth, chronic increases in intra-abdominal pressure such as lifting, coughing or straining, connective tissue conditions, and damage to or weakness of the muscles.
Treatment may be conservative or surgical and should be based upon patient symptoms and preference.